Internet of Things(IoT)

Does your house have a smart thermostat? Or do you wear a fitness tracker to monitor your body as blood pressure and heart to help you maintain health and wellness? If you do, you are part of the Internet of Things, or IoT. It becomes embedded in our lives, as well as in the way organizations operate.

The Internet of Things describes physical objects embedded with sensors and actuators that communicate with computing systems via wired or wireless networks—allowing the physical world to be digitally monitored or even controlled. It consists of web-enabled smart devices that use embedded systems such as processors, sensors and communication hardware to collect, send and act on data they acquire from their environments. The physical objects being monitored include objects in nature, as well as people and animals. IoT can also use artificial intelligence and machine learning to aid in making data collection processes easier and more dynamic.

There are numerous real-world applications of the internet of things, ranging from consumer IoT and enterprise IoT to manufacturing and Industrial IoT. IoT applications span numerous verticals, including automotive, telecom and energy.

In the consumer segment smart homes that are equipped with smart thermostats, smart appliances and connected heating, lighting and electronic devices can be controlled remotely via computers and smartphones. For example, when a person arrives home, their car could communicate with the garage to open the door; their thermostat could adjust to a preset temperature; and their lighting could be set to a lower intensity and color. Wearable devices with sensors and software can collect and analyze user data, sending messages to other technologies about the users with the aim of making lives of users easier and more comfortable. Wearable devices are also used for public safety. for example, by improving the response time of first responders during emergencies by providing optimized routes to a location or by tracking vital signs of construction workers or firefighters at life-threatening sites.

IoT Applications In Smart Home

IoT Applications In Smart Building

IoT Applications In Smart Agriculture

IoT Applications In Disaster Prevention

In addition to offering smart devices to automate homes, IoT is essential to business. It provides organizations with a real-time look into how their systems really work, delivering insights into everything from the performance of machines to supply chain and logistics operations.

IoT enables machines to complete tedious tasks without human intervention. Companies can automate processes, reduce labor costs, cut down on waste and improve service delivery. IoT helps make it less expensive to manufacture and deliver goods, and offers transparency into customer transactions. In healthcare, IoT gives providers the ability to monitor patients more closely using an analysis of the data that is generated. Remote medical devices can help monitor and share the vital signsa of a patient or detect early signs of health issues for fast intervention. Hospitals often use IoT systems to complete tasks such as inventory management for both pharmaceuticals and medical instruments. Smart buildings can, for instance, reduce energy costs using sensors that detect how many occupants are in a room. The temperature can adjust automatically, for example, turning the air conditioner on if sensors detect a conference room is full or turning the heat down if everyone in the office has gone home. In agriculture, IoT-based smart farming systems can help monitor light, temperature, humidity and soil moisture of crop fields using connected sensors. IoT is also instrumental in automating irrigation systems. In a smart city, IoT sensors and deployments, such as smart streetlights and smart meters, can help alleviate traffic, conserve energy, monitor and address environmental concerns and improve sanitation.

If IoT is the engine driving the next wave of technological innovation, then batteries can be considered as the fuel. One of the most critical components of any IoT deployment is how the devices are powered. An IoT deployment will not get off the ground and can do nothing for us without a proper power supply. Due to the range of application requirements, IoT sensors often need to run remotely for an extended period, making the choice of battery a crucial decision in the IoT system setup.

Although wired sensors can be used for IoT, wireless sensors are easier to deploy and more flexible. However, wireless sensors can only be powered by batteries in many applications, where power supply is not secured. If the wireless sensor runs out of power, the sensor becomes useless. The easiest way to extend battery life is to use a larger battery, i.e., a higher capacity. However, users generally expect sensors that are small and yet offer high performance, i.e., the ability to transmit large amounts of data, as well as local intelligence and data processing capabilities. Lithium ion batteries are often the dominant source of power in the IoT industry due to their miniaturization, light weight, high capacity, long lifespan and good temperature sensitivity.

As a design engineer, you need to think big, finding the right balance between the battery size and the sensor capabilities so that the battery can perform at its best and last long enough. This requires an in-depth understanding of the battery technologies, power supply time and current consumption, as well as power management technologies to extend the battery life.